Kunci Identifikasi Insecta

Kunci Determinasi
Untuk memudahkan menelusuri tahapan klasifikasi suatu organisme dapat digunakan kunci determinasi. Kunci determinasi adalah uraian keterangan tentang ciri-ciri makhluk hidup yang disusun berurut mulai dari ciri umum hingga ke ciri khusus untuk menemukan kelompok/spesies makhluk hidup. Urutan daftar ciri-ciri itu disusun berupa nomor-nomor, biasanya bersifat dikotom. Lalu, bagaimana cara menggunakannya ? Untuk menggunakan kunci determinasi, mula-mula kamu harus mengetahui nama bagian yang diamati. Kemudian cocokkan dengan ciri-ciri yang ada pada kunci determinasi. kunci determinasi juga kadang disebut kunci Identifikasi
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(insect with one pair of wings)
1a Insect with wings (though forewings may be partly or entirely stiffened as ‘wing-covers’ or ‘wing-cases’ and not used in flight) 2
1b Insect without wings (though some forms may retain vestigial wings resembling small scales or pads) 32
2a One pair of wings 3
2b Two pairs of wings 9
3a Dorsal surface of the prothorax extended backwards over the abdomen; hind-legs enlarged and modified for jumping; insect grasshopper-like in general appearance Orthoptera
3b Insect not like this 4
4a Wings horny or leathery (stiffened) and not used for flying 5
4b Wings membranous (flexible) and used for flying 6
5a Wings overlapping at least a little in the centre-line and with obvious veins present Phasmida
5b Wings (elytra) meeting in the centre-line (sometimes fused together) and without veins (elytra may have longitudinal grooves or striae which should not be confused with veins) Coleoptera
6a Abdomen with one or more long terminal appendages 7
6b Abdomen without terminal appendages 8
7a Wings with only one forked vein; antennae relatively long; small insect usually less than 5 mm long Hemiptera
7b Wings with many veins; antenae short; alrge insect Ephemeroptera
8a Thorax with a pair of club-shaped structures (halteres) lying just in front of the wings Strepsiptera
8b Thorax with a pair of club-shaped structures (halteres) lying just behind the wings (may be hidden by body hairs and other structures) Diptera
(insect with two pairs of wings)
9a Forewings partly or entirely horny or leathery and forming stiffened covers for the membranous hindwings 10
9b Both pairs of wings membranous (flexible) and used for flying (though wings sometimes feather-like rather than membranous or their membranous nature may be obscured by a dense covering of hairs, scales or waxy powder) 16
10a Mouth-parts forming a tube-like ‘beak’ (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (rostrum usually folded backwards under the body when not in use) Hemiptera
10b Mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and chewing 11
11a Forewings overlapping at least a little in the centre-line and usually with many veins present 12
11b Forewings (elytra) meeting in the centre-line and without veins (though elytra may have longitudinal grooves or striae which should not be confused with veins) 14
12a Hind-legs enlarged and modified for jumping; insect grasshopper-like in general appearance Orthoptera
12b Hind-legs not modified for jumping and usually similar in thickness to the middle-legs; insect not grasshopper-like 13
13a Prothorax much larger than the head; cerci nearly always many-segmented and fairly prominent Dyctioptera
13b Prothorax and head of similar size; cerci always unsegmented and very short Phasmida
14a Forewings (elytra) long and covering all or most of the abdomen Coleoptera
14b Forewings (elytra) short and leaving much of the abdomen exposed 15
15a Abdomen with a pair of terminal pincers or forceps Dermaptera
15b Abdomen without terminal pincers Coleoptera
16a Wings very narrow without veins and fringed with long hairs (feather-like); tarsi 1- or 2-segmented (small slender insect often found in flowers) Thysanoptera
16b Wings broader with veins present; if wings fringed with long hairs then tarsi comprised of more than 2 segments (though wing veins of some insects may be much reduced and hardly visible or partly obscured by hairs, scales or waxy powder) 17
17a Hindwings noticeably smaller than forewings 18
17b Both pairs of wings similar in size or hindwings larger than forewings 26
18a Wings and much of the body covered with white waxy powder; tiny insect usually less than 2-3 mm long 19
18b No such powdery covering 20
19a Wings held flat over the body at rest; mouth-parts forming a tube-like ‘beak’ (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (rostrum usually folded backwards under the body when not in use) Hemiptera
19b Wings held roof-wise over the body at rest; mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting Neuroptera
20a Wings more or less covered with minute scales; mouth-parts when present forming a coiled proboscis or ‘tongue’ Lepidoptera
20b Wings usually transparent (without scales though often hairy); mouth-parts not forming a coiled proboscis 21
21a Forewings with many cross-veins making a network pattern; abdomen with 2 or 3 long thread-like terminal appendages Ephemeroptera
21b Forewings with relatively few cross-veins; abdomen usually without or with only very short terminal appendages (cerci) 22
22a Wings noticeably covered with hairs; insect moth-like in general appearance Trichoptera
22b Wings not noticeably hairy (though may be fringed with hairs or tiny surface hairs may be seen if wings examined under a microscope or strong hand-lens) 23
23a Mouth-parts forming a tube-like ‘beak’ (rostrum) for piercing and sucking (rostrum usually folded backwards under the body when not in use; abdomen sometimes with tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end) Hemiptera
23b Mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and chewing 24
24a Tarsi 4- or 5-segmented; hard-bodied insects with abdomen often constricted at its base into a petiole or ‘waist’ (except Symphyta) Hymonoptera
24b Tarsi 2- or 3-segmented; small soft-bodied insect 25
25a Antennae with at least 12 segments Psocoptera
25b Antennae with only 9 segments Zoraptera
26a Tarsi 5-segmented 27
26b Tarsi 3- or 4-segmented 29
27a Wings noticeably covered with hairs; insect moth-like in general appearance Trichoptera
27b Wings not noticeably hairy (though tiny hairs may be seen if wings examined under a microscope or strong hand-lens) 28
28a Front of head extended downwards to form a beak-like structure with jaws (mandibles) at its tip Mecoptera
28b No such beak-like extension of the head Neuroptera
29a Tarsi 4-segmented Isoptera
29b Tarsi 3-segmented 30
30a Wings noticeably hairy; front tarsi with first segment greatly swollen Embioptera
30b Wings not noticeably hairy; front tarsi simple 31
31a Wings with many cross-veins making a network pattern and held away from the body at rest (either outstretched or folded vertically); antennae short and inconspicuous Odonata
31b Wings with relatively few cross-veins and folded flat over the body at rest; antennae long and slender (longer than width of head) Plecoptera
(insect without wings)
32a Small soft-bodied insect living on terrestrial plants with the body encased under a protective shield (‘scale’) or partly covered with white waxy filaments or powder Hemiptera
32b Insect not like this 33
33a Thoracic legs absent or enclosed in a membrane preventing any movement (Larvae and pupae of most
Orders of Endopterygota)
33b Thoracic legs present and fully functional 34
34a Abdomen with false-legs or prolegs (fleshy structures different from and additional to the jointed legs of the thorax); insect caterpillar-like in general appearance 35
34b Abdomen without prolegs; insect not caterpillar-like 37
35a No more than 5 pairs of prolegs Larvae Of lepidoptera
35b At least 6 pairs of prolegs 36
36a Head with a single small eye (ocellus) on each side Larvae of Hymenoptera
36b Head with several small eyes (ocelli) on each side Larvae of Mecoptera
37a Insect living in a terrestrial habitat or on the surface of water (not underwater) 38
37b Insect truly aquatic (living underwater) 70
38a Abdomen with cerci or other terminal appendages (take care not to confuse terminal hairs or bristles with cerci) 39
38b Abdomen without such terminal appendages (though may have small appendages on proximal segments or a pair of tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end) 56
39a Abdomen with 6 segments or fewer; usually with a forked terminal appendage (springing organ) folded under the rear end when not in use Collembola
39b Abdomen with more than 6 segments (usually 8 or more clearly visible); terminal appendages of a different form 40
40a Antennae short and often inconspicuous (at most about the same length as the head) 41
40b Antennae long and conspicuous (usually much longer than the head) 42
41a Tarsi with at least 3 segments (usually 5-segmented) Phasmida
41b Tarsi with fewer than 3 segments (often reduced to single or paired claws on the end of each leg) Larvae of Coleoptera
42a Hind-legs enlarged and modified for jumping; insect grasshopper-like in general appearance Orthoptera
42b Hind-legs not modified for jumping and usually similar in thickness to the middle-legs; insect not grasshopper-like 43
43a Terminal appendages of abdomen forming a pair of pincers or forceps 44
43b Terminal appendages of abdomen not like this 45
44a Tarsi 3-segmented Dermaptera
44b Tarsi 1-segmented Diplura
45a Terminal appendages of abdomen long (much more than half the length of the abdomen) 46
45b Terminal appendages of abdomen short (less than half the length of the abdomen) 48
46a Abdomen with 3 terminal appendages (paired cerci and a median filament) Thysanura
46b Abdomen with 2 terminal appendages (cerci) 47
47a Tarsi 3-segmented; terminal appendages of abdomen (cerci) unsegmented Dermaptera
47b Tarsi 1-segmented; terminal appendages of abdomen (cerci) many-segmented Diplura
48a Tarsi usually 5-segmented (though sometimes fewer on regenerated legs of Phasmida) 49
48b Tarsi with fewer than 5 segments on all legs 52
49a Front of head extended downwards to form a beak-like structure with jaws (mandibles) at its tip Mecoptera
49b No such beak-like extension of the head 50
50a Prothorax much larger than the head Dyctioptera
50b Prothorax and head of similar size (prothorax at most only slightly larger than the head) 51
51a Cerci 8-segmented and moderately long Grylloblattodea
51b Cerci unsegmented and very short Phasmida
52a Tarsi usually 4-segmented Isoptera
52b Tarsi with fewer than 4 segments 53
53a Tarsi 1-segmented Diplura
53b Tarsi 2- or 3-segmented 54
54a Tarsi 2-segmented Zoraptera
54b Tarsi 3-segmented 55
55a Front tarsi with first segment greatly swollen; cerci 2-segmented Embioptera
55b Front tarsi not swollen; cerci unsegmented Phasmida
(insect without wings – terrestrial – no terminal appendages)
56a Insect living as a parasite on a warm-blooded animal or closely associated with such an animal (i.e. on the body or in the nest or den of a bird or mammal) 57
56b Insect not parasitic on a warm-blooded animal 61
57a Body flattened from side to side (jumping insect) Shiponaptera
57b Body flattened from top to bottom 58
58a Head partly withdrawn into the thorax 59
58b Head not withdrawn into the thorax 60
59a Antennae short and inconspicuous (much shorter than the head); legs with strong and distinctly hooked tarsal claws Diptera
59b Antennae long and conspicuous (more than twice the length of the head); legs with small and only slightly curved tarsal claws Hemiptera
60a At least the prothorax distinct from the other thoracic segments; legs with small tarsal claws; mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting Mallophaga
60b All the thoracic segments fused into a single unit; legs with large tarsal claws which can close tightly against the legs; mouth-parts forming a tube-like proboscis for piercing and sucking (proboscis retracted within the head when not in use) Siphunculata
61a Antennae absent (minute soil-living insects usually less than 2 mm long) Protura
61b Antennae present 62
62a Abdomen strongly constricted at its base into a narrow petiole or ‘waist’; antennae often bent into an elbowed shape Hymenoptera
62b Abdomen not constricted into a ‘waist’; antennae more or less straight 63
63a Body covered with dense scales and flattened hairs Lepidoptera
63b Body bare or with sparse bristle-like hairs 64
64a Mouth-parts forming a tube-like proboscis or rostrum for piercing and/or sucking (often folded backwards under the head when not in use) 65
64b Mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and/or chewing 67
65a Tarsi usually 5-segmented Diptera
65b Tarsi with fewer than 5 segments 66
66a Proboscis small and cone shaped (much shorter in length than the head) (small slender insect often found in flowers) Thysanoptera
66b Proboscis or rostrum long and jointed (nearly always longer than the head) (abdomen sometimes with tubular outgrowths or cornicles near the hind end) Hemiptera
67a Antennae short and often inconspicuous (at most about the same length as the head) 68
67b Antennae long and conspicuous (much longer than the head) 69
68a Abdomen with 6 segments or fewer Collembola
68b Abdomen with more than 6 segments (usually 8 or more clearly visible) Larvae of Variuor order
69a Head narrower than the body; mandibles very long and protruding forward well in front of the head (clearly visible from above) Larvae of Neuroptera
69b Head as wide or nearly as wide as the body; mandibles small and not protruding in front of the head (not visible from above) Psocoptera
(insect without wings – aquatic)
70a Mouth-parts with a tube-like ‘beak’ or with long stylets for piercing and sucking 71
70b Mouth-parts with jaws (mandibles) for biting and/or chewing 72
71a Mouth-parts forming a robust tube-like ‘beak’ (rostrum) folded backwards under the body when not in use Hemiptera
71b Mouth-parts forming a pair of long and slender stylets extending more or less straight forward in front of the head between the antennae and about as long or longer than the latter Larvae of Neuroptera
72a Head with a hinged protrusible grasping organ (or ‘mask’) bearing large terminal claws (normally folded beneath the head when not in use) Nymphs of Odonata
72b No hinged protrusible ‘mask’ beneath the head 74
73a Abdomen with pairs of feather-like or flat plate-like lateral appendages on some segments (gill filaments) and 3 long terminal appendages (paired cerci and a median filament) Nymphs of Ephemeroptera
73b Without these features combined 74
74a Abdomen without lateral appendages but with 2 long terminal appendages (cerci); antennae long and slender (much longer than the head) Nymphs of Plecoptera
74b Without these features combined 75
75a Abdomen with pairs of multi-jointed feather-like lateral appendages on some segments (gill filaments) and sometimes a single terminal appendage Larvae of Neuroptera
75b Abdomen without lateral appendages (gill filaments) or if such appendages present then always unjointed 76
76a Last abdominal segment with a pair of fleshy appendages each bearing a strong claw; middle- and hind-legs longer than the width of the thorax; body often enclosed in a tubular case made from small pebbles or other debris Larvae of Trichoptera
76b Without these features combined Larvae of Coleoptera

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